Awesome map showing speeds of buses in Boston

Tweet Share on Facebook Share Share Email Pin Pocket Flipboard Interesting project coming from two GeoGeeks and enthusiasts of Boston who run blog called the Bostongraphy. The interactive map shows near real-time locations and speeds of buses in Boston, based on GPS probe data. Each path is colored along the way according to speed of travel.

Source: Awesome map showing speeds of buses in Boston

Dutch police is training eagles to take down drones

Tweet Share on Facebook Share Share Email Pin Pocket Flipboard As the number of drones around the world is growing fast, law enforcement agencies started to seriously look at risks related to millions of these devices flying over our heads. The risk might be related to drone crushing in a crowded place, but we can

Source: Dutch police is training eagles to take down drones

OpenStreetMap Visualization: How much has OSM grown in the last ten years?

Tweet Share on Facebook Share Share Email Pin Pocket Flipboard OpenStreetMap – the “wikipedia of mapping”, launched in July 2004 is slowly becoming the mainstream map data platform behind many mobile apps and websites. (Related: Why would you use OpenStreetMap if there is Google maps). But then, how much has OSM really grown over the years?

Source: OpenStreetMap Visualization: How much has OSM grown in the last ten years?

Twitter’s Golden Egg: Can Twitter do more with its location data?

Tweet Share on Facebook Share Share Email Pin Pocket Flipboard Twitter is an amazing tool. It’s probably the most diverse (and fast-spaced) among all the social media out there! Off late, Twitter hasn’t been doing great at the stock exchange and needless to say, there were quite a few “Is Twitter Doomed”  articles discussing what twitter

Source: Twitter’s Golden Egg: Can Twitter do more with its location data?


What can be a great company then of friends. Friends those I haven’t listened saying NO yet. It was 8am as usual our shining time. We all live in the same house with each different room. One suddenly came out of toilet with excitement. He said lets go to Naryanthan, Kavreplanchok. We had just waked up. All said yes. We went for tea. While we were eating breakfast, I suddenly remember a task to be completed the same day but I had already said we shall go today. A confusion. After convincing one hour I finally was convinced. We had just 800 rs each. At 10 am we leaved for panauti from Dhulikhel. It was just 30 minute far from Dhulikhel. While waiting for bus, we planned to get lift from any vehicle that come first in the way. Afterward a truck came. We all put our hands up symbolizing the lift sign. Yeah the truck stopped. It was like a small room inside in the cabin and seem we are much above the road that we didn’t feel in any bus. Road is muddy and broken at several places. We get off in panauti Bus Park. We went for bus to Dhumkharka. We get to know bus will leave at 1pm for Dhumkharka. We had enough time then. We went for shopping in that time. We buy Noodles, Biskets, and many other things (u understand). Then we planned to panauti town. In the way we saw a museum. We went in. A lot of traditional instruments were in that in Museum. Un noticely it was about to become 1pm. We rushed to Bus Park and directly went to the roof of the bus as you know its totally fun watching scenarios from bus roof. In the way a lot of other people were also in the bus roof. We sang songs while travelling. We missed guitar too. Road was totally muddy and unpitched. It is of village road. Travelling side by the river and passing through woods and dangerous hills we reached Dhumkarka after 2 hour from Panauti. I had only bag. We were in a new place and we didn’t know is there place or not. We asked people about hotels. They replied there is no hotel after Earthquake. We were terrified and we made plan that we shall go to Narayan than directly than. We asked people is it possible to Narayan than. They said there is no places or houses at that places and its about 3 hour walk in deep jungle of tigers. Afterward we need to stay at dhumkharka. After searching and asking people we finally get place to eat and live. They offered a place in there house and charged us only the cost of food. We then asked them to make local chicken. While that time we roamed the village. Unnoticely we had walked 5km away from Dhumkharka, while returning its was 7pm. We didn’t have camera nor a mobile with good megapixel. Fortunately I had GPS in bag. There was a embedded camera in it. We took photograph from that GPS. We freshen up and had dinner. We tasted the wine they offered us, they said it is good during winter to make body warm and it was there culture that offer wine. . What a taste it was. We loved it. . The old man who was the father of the house owner joined us. He told us the time when he was young. He said he and his friends used to make sweeper and take it to capital city Kathmandu to sell and generate some money to buy rice. They used to walk to reach Kathmandu. He told a long time there used to snow that it was difficult to walk also. They used to remain inside of house for weeks, but now it’s been so long that he hadn’t seen snow falling in Dhumkharka. He further said king Mahendra had come to Narayan than in house. He said king left horse in the midway and went to Narayan than on foot. It was hard to believe but he further said king had flew in Narayan than. We asked 2-3 times, he flew? He replied the same answer. We convinced our self that what if at that time they had powers. He shared a lot of other things which made us more interested to go to that place We went too room and planned to leave for Narayan than. In first hour we wake up because the last bus to panauti from Dhumkharka leave at 4pm. We began to talk about ghost stories while sleeping. Everyone one had their stories. Soon we feel asleep.
We waked up and were becoming ready for walk. The owner said you might lose the way, but lucky enough my daughter is going to village where Narayan than is halfway. We get company of 2more kids. We finally left for Narayan than. The way is steep up. We went through jungle and hills. While we reached the top of first we could see Dhumkharka a deep below and we could the Himalayan range also. There were destroyed houses in the way. Earthquake has affected every house. People had made temporary house of tin. We could also feel how difficult to live under It during winter season. We went on. After walking 2 more hour we finally reached Narayan than. When I checked GPS it calculated 3000 mt. we were amazed by such height. As we go up the mountain we were only on the top. A down below there was cloud everywhere. We were above cloud. Due to brightness of the cloud, eyes became watery. We too see our national bird rhododendron. Watching the cloud below us it felt like jump over it and we will stuck in the cloud. It was such a view that we want keep everything inside in eye. When suddenly cloud went away in east direction, we went to that cliff. Our heart suddenly get afraid of that height. It was a vertical cliff of about 90 degree. We could see down below. It was so such down that we could not stand in that place. We lay down and see the down places. We bowed in the temple and see the cave. Afterward we began to eat our lunch. After staying about 1 hour in there I returned to Dhumkharka. I returned alone and reached dhumkharaka in one hour. I catch the bus and returned to dhulikhel. But whole time the view was in my eye and my heart was still beating strongly because of such cliff.
(the journey of 3 hour from Dhumkharka to Nayanthan will be posted soon)

Land Tenure System in China: Issues and Challenges

Land Tenure System in China: Issues and Challenges


Land tenure is the relationship, whether legally or customarily defined, among people, as individuals or groups, with respect to land. (For convenience, “land” is used here to include other natural resources such as water and trees.) Land tenure is an institution, i.e., rules invented by societies to regulate behavior. Rules of tenure define how property rights to land are to be allocated within societies. They define how access is granted to rights to use, control, and transfer land, as well as associated responsibilities and restraints. In simple terms, land tenure systems determine who can use what resources for how long, and under what conditions.

Land tenure is often categorized as:

  • Private: the assignment of rights to a private party who may be an individual, a married couple, a group of people, or a corporate body such as a commercial entity or non-profit organization. For example, within a community, individual families may have exclusive rights to residential parcels, agricultural parcels and certain trees. Other members of the community can be excluded from using these resources without the consent of those who hold the rights.
  • Communal: a right of commons may exist within a community where each member has a right to use independently the holdings of the community. For example, members of a community may have the right to graze cattle on a common pasture.
  • Open access: specific rights are not assigned to anyone and no-one can be excluded. This typically includes marine tenure where access to the high seas is generally open to anyone; it may include rangelands, forests, etc, where there may be free access to the resources for all. (An important difference between open access and communal systems is that under a communal system non-members of the community are excluded from using the common areas.)
  • State: property rights are assigned to some authority in the public sector. For example, in some countries, forest lands may fall under the mandate of the state, whether at a central or decentralised level of government.

Despite its unprecedented achievements in rural development, China remains a lower-middle income country. Unsound practices in farmland use and management have contributed to farmland loss, rising social conflicts and deprivation of the landless, which perpetuates rural poverty and land tenure insecurity of the weak and poor. The current hybrid land tenure systems characterized by collective ownership and individual use rights exert both positive and negative effects on land governance. China’s approach to land laws, policies and institutional reforms is characterized by inherent weaknesses which impede the strengthening of peasants’ rights and collective action in the process. With the simplistic assumption on the importance of land tenure to facilitate its transferability and scaled agricultural production, the current reform is undergoing a risky transformation that may backfire. In this sense, the Chinese approach bears resemblances with other countries whose experiences have failed the poor and have produced unintended consequences. In essence, the failure to take into account the livelihoods of the poor especially from sustainable land use perspectives exemplifies their pursuit of short-term gains rather than longer-term solutions to complex rural development issues. The challenges confronting China’s rural development require a renewed understanding of what constitutes an appropriate land tenure system that suits the local conditions of a given community. This needs a holistic study of what kind of land tenure systems exist in China, how they have worked in the past, what their problems are, and how they can be redressed to suit the needs of the poor.

  1. The Land Ownership and Land Tenure

All land in China is owned by the state or by collectives. After carrying out the opening policy in 1978, China has transformed its planned economy system into a socialist market economy system, and adopted a land use rights tenure system similar to the land leasehold tenure system in Western countries. Under China’s Land Administration Law, which was firstly drafted in 1986 and amended in 1998, the State owns all urban land, while farmer collectives own all rural land. As the land tenure system was introduced in China only after 1986, land using before this time is all treated as allocated, the user may continue to use them on paying annual land use tax, or transfer the land use right (LUR) into “granted ” by paying the land grant premium. The land ownership and land-use rights (LURs) may be separated, and the state remains the land ownership and local government may transfer the LURs by laws on behalf of the state. It also states that land and buildings are regarded as two separate entities. Land users may use the land and own the buildings and improvements on it, but the sovereignty of the land remains in the hands of the State or farmer collectives. Given the characteristics of the Chinese land tenure system, private land ownership does not exist in China. As far as compulsory land acquisition is concerned, the acquiring authority actually acquires the LURs only.

  1. Allocation and Granting of State-owned Land

In urban areas of cities, lands are state-owned, what can be assigned, sold and resold, leased or mortgaged is the right of using within a fixed term, for example, lots for residential use are usually assigned a use term of 70 years. There are two types of land-use rights in China: the “granted land use right” and the “allocated land use right.” The difference is that granted LURs are limited in time, cost the holder an amount proportionate to the land’s expected return and may be held by private individuals and entities, while allocated LURs are usually given without the exchange of consideration and without time limitations, but may not be held by private individuals and entities. Local governments, who administer LURs for the state, may either allocate or grant state-owned LURs to a user according to the potential use of the land. For example, a project for public interests such as a public school invested by the government may obtain a proper piece of land without paying any thing. The most important features of allocated land are that the user has no right to transfer it and that the state may recover the land at any time when needed without paying compensation for the land allocated but for buildings on it. When land is granted, the user pays the local government a land grant premium for the right to use it for a stated period of years. This granted land use right is transferable by mortgage and lease, and may not be abrogated by the state except for compensation in the exercise of its right of eminent domain.

  1. Contracting of Collective Land

Lands in rural areas and suburban areas of cities excluding those belonging to the state prescribed by law belong to peasants’ collective ownership. House sites, land allotted for personal needs and hilly land allotted for private use belongs to peasants’ collective ownership. As now in the countryside of China, agricultural production is proceeded in individual households other than in collective entities like communes. A land-contracting tenure system is employed, called ‘chengbao’ in Chinese, according to Rural Land Contract Law promulgated in 2002. Land collectively owned by farmers may be contracted out to run by members of the collective economic organizations for crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries production under a term of 30 years. The contractees shall sign a contract with the correspondents’ contractor to define each other’s rights and obligations. The land use right of contracting was banned to transfer, but a reform on it is now under contemplation.

Legal and Policy Framework for Land Tenure Security in China


  1. Main Law on Land Tenure

China pays high attention to the legislation on land and real estate, and more than 30 land laws and Regulation have been formulated and promulgated in the past 50 years. The land legislationin later 1980s’ was to regularize various legal relationships of construction land use, enrich and consummate the legal system, bring into effect the nationalization of urban land. In 1990s’, the key of land legislation lies in the reform of the system of the use of land, i.e., to establish and foster the land market and to strengthen the legislation on the management of land property. In 1988, as part of the government’s goal of establishing market transactions, China amended itsConstitution and Land Administration Law (LAL) to permit the transfer of LURs to private persons and entities. And so the LURs may be assigned in accordance with the laws and regulations. In 1990, China enacted regulations allowing the conveyance of long-term LURs to businesses for the purpose of development. New land registration rules also were enacted. To further promote the development of a market for real estate, the National People’s Congress promulgated additional laws for the administration of urban real estate in 1994. Since 1986, LAL’s implementation in the next 10 years exposed a number of weaknesses that caused serious problems especially the excessive conversion of agricultural land for urban development.

  1. Land Use and Compensation Policies

The Land Administration authority has taking control over the land policy reform, land allocation and acquisition, monitoring of land development, comprehensive land-use planning, and implementation of land laws. The Land Administration Law made it possible for private 3 organizations and individuals to lease and develop state-owned land, which catalyzed the development of the land market in China. With access to the land market, developers started to convert unused land or land for agricultural uses to construction land that supports industrial, energy, and transport projects, as well as city and real estate development plans.

  1. The Current Chinese Land Title System

Land registration is the process of recording information about land parcels for the purposes of property rights and land transactions. Various laws and regulations have clarified and accelerated land titling, and enhanced the protection of LURs and personal assets. The land title security provided by a nation’s public land title registration system may be sufficient to encourage mortgage loans from local banks and mortgage lenders. Thus, with the rule of law and a public registration system, the land title security has been enhanced for the risk reduction and promise Of indemnification for China’s mortgage-backed debt in the securities markets. In the 1980s, the current system for land and housing registration was re-established. It was intended to bring the records on property ownership status up to date, to confirm legal titles for property owners, to define the new private property rights introduced by the reforms, and provide the records of title deeds and related instruments for public examination. Land registration was tentatively introduced in 1987, and gradually extended nationally. The government can reduce title risks to purchasers, lenders, and investors by legislation and by improvements to China’s land registration system.

 Problems on Land Tenure System

Registration is required for the creation, release, or modification of a mortgage, a mortgage on a LUR is not effective without registration and will not be protected by law. In this case, land registration and titling system must include all rights and restrictions with regard to all lands in 4 the country. This means all state, municipal, private, customary, and forest land should be identified and registered in a consistent and complete cadastral system. Unfortunately, the situation is not so, but fortunately more and more people have realized the importance of property right registry, complete property registration could be reasonably envisaged. The development of computer system for registration is nation-wide practiced in China, most cities now use information system to maintain register data. From the point of view of technology, Chinese registration system is quite advanced, but   the availability of register data to public is still a problem, partly because of the cost of getting them, and partly because of the strict authorization to go through to get them. Another problem is the status of multiple registry office      which must be improved. Under the current system, Land Administration Bureau (LAB) is in charge of the re e of the registration of land use rights. A second system exists for the registration of interests in buildings, including ownership, leasehold interests, mortgages, and other security interests. The Housing Administration is in charge of registration and certificate issuance for ownership of buildings and interests in buildings. A title risk exists if an owner registers ownership of a building, but fails to registersimultaneously an ownership interest in the LUR to the land under and around the building. Insome cities, such as Shanghai, Shenzhen, Beijing, Chongqing, and other business centers, theregistration records for buildings and LURs are maintained together. In other locations, they aremaintained in separate offices, creating additional inefficiency and difficulty in determining whether a purchaser, lender, or investor may acquire a right to the building. Among the others, possibly the most important problem is the abusive expropriation of rural lands for urban expansion. These deeds in the name of development requirement, in fact, trespass severely farmer’s interests and rights in rural areas. The Central Chinese Government has formulated a series of policies to encourage rural farmers to proceed agricultural production, to prohibit unauthorized illegal rural land expropriation, to raise the compensation standard of land expropriation for countryside farmers.


All land in China is owned by the state or by collectives. China has adopted a land use right (LUR) tenure system for the demand of socialist market economy system. By the Land Administration Law, Land users may use the land and own the buildings and improvements on it. The LURs may be assigned in accordance with the laws and regulations. The land-use rights have two types of allocated and granted LUR. The Law of Property Rights is under drafting. China has been carrying out the severe land use governing system for arable land protection and effective land use.


Chan, N. 2003. Land Acquisition Compensation in China – Problems & Answers. International Real Estate Review, 6(1):136-152.

Ding, C. 2003. Land policy reform in China: assessment and prospects. Land Use Policy, 20:109-120.

Palomar, J. 2002. Land Tenure Security as a Market Stimulator in China. Duke Journal of

Comparative & International Law. 12:7-74. The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China.

1986(revised 1998). Land Administration Law of the People’s Republic of China.

The State Council of China. 1999. Implementing Rules for the Land Administration Law of thePeople’s Republic of China.

“आफ्नै करियरको त ठेगान छैन कसरी गर्ने होला यो करियर काउन्सेलिंग ?”

loved this

IT MEET 2014

“आफ्नै करियरको त ठेगान छैन कसरी गर्ने होला यो करियर काउन्सेलिंग ?” “IT MEET” बारे मनमा उठिरहेका विभिन्न प्रशनबीच यहि प्रश्नले आफुँलाई सोच्न बाध्य बनायो |  मैले यो विषयलाई प्रशिक्षक र खेलाडीबीच राखेर दाँज्न खोजें, शिक्षक र विद्यार्थीबीच राखेर दाँज्न खोजें | केहि समानता पाएँ | “अरुलाई सल्लाह सुझाव दिन विद्यावारिधि नै गर्नु पर्ने हो र? एक कुशल खेल प्रशिक्षकको खेलजीवन सफल रहेकै हुनुपर्छ त? बर्षेनी हजारौंको संख्यामा निस्किने डाक्टर र इन्जिनियरहरुलाई डाक्टर र इन्जिनियरले नै पढाएको हो त?”पक्कै पनि होइन | यसरि उत्पन्न भएका विचारहरुका ज्वारभाटामाथि सर्फिंग गर्न थालें |

छोटकरीमा भन्न चाहन्छौं; हामि विद्यार्थी हो | +२ पास गरेपछि आफ्नो भविष्यबारे निकै चिन्ता हुनेगर्दछ | “ के पढ्ने? के नपढ्ने? कता पढ्ने ? अनि बुवा-आमा अनि आफन्तजनले गरेको अपेक्षाको भरि बोक्दै कसरि बढ्ने होला?” यस्ता कयौं प्रश्नले घेरिएका हुन्छौं हामी | बाटो देखाउने थोरै हुन्छन् | चाहेको विषय पढ्ने अवसर, क्षमता, अर्थ अनि समय हुँदा हुँदै पनि कतिपय…

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An Unusual Blend of College Education, Open Mapping and Local Governance via Kathmandu Living Labs

Saturday, 13th of September woke up to an unusual blend of college education, open mapping and local governance.

Over 70 students from Apex College and 20 facilitators from Kathmandu Living Labs mapped over 159 acres area in ward 7 in Kathmandu Metropolitan City. This Mapping Party was an unusual one – It was a graded exercise to the participating students as part of their geographic information system (GIS) course that Dr. Nama Raj Budhathoki is teaching this semester with assistance from Poshan Niraula and Helina Shrestha.

The mapping exercise provided students with an opportunity to contribute to Livable Kathmandu, an initiative of 15 members of the parliament who represent entire Kathmandu Valley. Honorable Mr. Gagan Thapa who represents Kathmandu constituency 4 facilitates Livable Kathmandu. The initiative aims to make Kathmandu Valley a better place to live!
further information;

Open source software related to Geoscience and Remote sensing

Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) is a library written in the C++ programming language to support both exact and approximate nearest neighbor searching in spaces of various dimensions.

ASF MapReady
The MapReady Remote Sensing Tool Kit accepts level 1 detected SAR data, single look complex SAR data, and optical data from ASF and some other facilities. It can terrain correct, geocode, apply polarimetric decompositions to multi-pol SAR data, and save to several common imagery formats including GeoTIFF. Other software included in the package are an image viewer, metadata viewer, a projection coordinate converter, and a variety of command line tools.

ASF SAR Training Processor
The SAR Training Processor (STP) is a graphical tool written to assist in learning and teaching the flow of SAR processing.

BEAM is a toolbox for viewing, analyzing and processing of remote sensing data.

A package of programs for the determination of canopy geometry and solar radiation regimes through hemispherical photographs.

Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation with satellites can be an everyday activity for non-experts who support environmental conservation, forest management, and resource policy development. Through extensive observation of user needs, we developed CLASlite to assist governments, nongovernmental organizations, and academic institutions with high-resolution mapping and monitoring of forests with satellite

The Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems of Delft University of Technology has developed an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) processor named Doris (Delft object-oriented radar interferometric software).
Interferometric products and endproducts such as Digital Elevation Models and displacement maps can be generated with this software from Single Look Complex data. Data from the satellites ERS, ENVISAT, JERS, and RADARSAT can be processed with the Doris software.

The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is software for building and coupling weather, climate, and related models.

Feature Data Objects:
FDO Data Access Technology is an API for manipulating, defining and analyzing geospatial information regardless of where it is stored. FDO uses a provider-based model for supporting a variety of geospatial data sources, where each provider typically supports a particular data format or data store.

A database and GUI that supports operations for GIS and Remote Sensing processing and research.

LIDAR/IFSAR data conversion, analysis, and display software suite.

FWTools is a set of Open Source GIS binaries for Windows (win32) and
Linux (x86 32bit) systems produced by Frank Warmerdam. The kits are intended to be easy for end users to install and get going with. No fudzing with building from source, or having to collect lots of interrelated packages. FWTools includes OpenEV, GDAL, MapServer, PROJ.4 and OGDI as well as some supporting components.

The General Cartographic Transformation Package (GCTP) is a system of software routines designed to permit the transformation of coordinate pairs from one map projection to another. The GCTP is the standard computer software used by the National Mapping Division for map projection computations as of 1998.

GDAL is a translator library for raster geospatial data formats. As a library, it presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported formats. It also comes with a variety of useful commandline utilities for data translation and processing. The related OGR library (which lives within the GDAL source tree) provides a similar capability for simple features vector data.

GNU Data Language (GDL) is a free/libre/open source incremental compiler compatible with IDL and to some extent with PV-WAVE. Together with its library routines it serves as a tool for data analysis and visualization in such disciplines as astronomy, geosciences and medical imaging.

GEOS (Geometry Engine – Open Source) is a C++ port of the Java Topology Suite (JTS). As such, it aims to contain the complete functionality of JTS in C++. This includes all the OpenGIS Simple Features for SQL spatial predicate functions and spatial operators, as well as specific JTS enhanced topology functions.

GeoServer is a Java-based software server that allows users to view and edit geospatial data. Using open standards set forth by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), GeoServer allows for great flexibility in map creation and data sharing.

GeoTools is an open source (LGPL) Java code library which provides standards compliant methods for the manipulation of geospatial data, for example to implement Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The GeoTools library implements Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications as they are developed.

MSP (Mensuration Services Program) GEOTRANS (Geographic Translator) is an application program which allows you to easily convert geographic coordinates among a wide variety of coordinate systems, map projections, and datums. GEOTRANS runs in Microsoft Windows, LINUX, and UNIX environments and starting with MSP GEOTRANS 3.4 an android app is now available.

GeoPy makes it easy for developers to locate the coordinates of addresses, cities, countries, and landmarks across the globe using third-party geocoders and other data sources, such as wikis.

GMT (Generic Mapping Tools) is an open source collection of about 80 command-line tools for manipulating geographic and Cartesian data sets (including filtering, trend fitting, gridding, projecting, etc.) and producing PostScript illustrations ranging from simple x–y plots via contour maps to artificially illuminated surfaces and 3D perspective views; the GMT supplements add another 40 more specialized and discipline-specific tools. GMT supports over 30 map projections and transformations and comes with support data such as GSHHG coastlines, rivers, and political boundaries.

GRASS GIS, commonly referred to as GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), is a free and open source Geographic Information System (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics and maps production, spatial modeling, and visualization.

GSLIB is an acronym for Geostatistical Software LIBrary. This name was originally used for a collection of geostatistical programs developed at Stanford University over the last 15 years.

Geostatistical library in C. See R-Gstat.

Implements routines for spatial and spatio-temporal geostatistical modelling, prediction and simulation., including: variogram modelling; simple, ordinary and universal point or block (co)kriging, sequential Gaussian or indicator (co)simulation; variogram and variogram map plotting utility functions.

GsTL is a C++ library that provides a comprehensive set of tools and algorithms for geostatistics. The algorithms provided include:
Kriging : simple kriging (SK) , ordinary kriging (OK) and kriging with trend (KT);
Cokriging : simple or ordinary, using either the full cokriging system or one of the Markov models MM1 or MM2;
Sequential Simulation : Gaussian simulation, indicator simulation, or multiple-points statistics simulation,
P-Field Simulation.
Object-based simulation techniques and simulated annealing are currently not covered.

gvSIG is a Geographic Information System (GIS), that is, a desktop application designed for capturing, storing, handling, analyzing and deploying any kind of referenced geographic information in order to solve complex management and planning problems. gvSIG is known for having a user-friendly interface, being able to access the most common formats, both vector and raster ones. It features a wide range of tools for working with geographic-like information (query tools, layout creation, geoprocessing, networks, etc.), which turns gvSIG into the ideal tool for users working in the land realm.

Integrated Land and Water Information System, ILWIS, the world’s most user-friendly integrated software with raster processing capabilities to work on remotely sensed satellite images and vector processing capabilities for making vector maps and countless spacial modeling abilities. Its fully integrated raster and vector approach and user-friendlyness make it particularly suitable for natural resources managers, field scientists, biologists, ecologists, etc., as well as for educators.

ImageMagick is a software suite to create, edit, compose, or convert bitmap images. It can read and write images in a variety of formats (over 100) including DPX, EXR, GIF, JPEG, JPEG-2000, PDF, PNG,
Postscript, SVG, and TIFF. Use ImageMagick to resize, flip, mirror, rotate, distort, shear and transform images, adjust image colors, apply various special effects, or draw text, lines, polygons, ellipses and Bézier curves.

The iLab Neuromorphic Vision C++ Toolkit (iNVT, pronounced “invent”) is a comprehensive set of C++ classes for the development of neuromorphic models of vision. Neuromorphic models are computational neuroscience algorithms whose architecture and function is closely inspired from biological brains. The iLab Neuromorphic Vision C++ Toolkit comprises not only base classes for images, neurons, and brain areas, but also fully-developed models such as our model of bottom-up visual attention and of Bayesian surprise.

The National Library of Medicine Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK). ITK is an open-source, cross-platform system that provides developers with an extensive suite of software tools for image analysis. Developed through extreme programming methodologies, ITK employs leading-edge algorithms for registering and segmenting multidimensional data.

The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to ingest, manipulate, and analyze digital image data and to provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for image analysis. It is designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) research and production
efforts. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as processing and analysis of image data.

MapServer is an Open Source platform for publishing spatial data and interactive mapping applications to the web. Originally developed in the mid-1990’s at the University of Minnesota, MapServer is released under an MIT-style license, and runs on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X). MapServer is not a full-featured GIS system, nor does it aspire to be.

Automatic calculation of correspondence between two similar images is a problem that occurs under many conditions, in the geometric processing of images. This is particularly the case in the field of mapping where the image has value from the moment where you can geo-reference the information it contains. The objective of the MicMac software is to provide a unified solution to meet the majority of these problems. The general strategy used by MicMac is a multi-resolution approach, and, at a given resolution, the approach is to minimize an energy function combining the data term and a-priori knowledge on the regularity.

MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator) EPA’s Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) has developed the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). This new emission modeling system estimates emissions for mobile sources covering a broad range of pollutants and allows multiple scale analysis. MOVES currently estimates emissions from cars, trucks & motorcycles. We plan to add the capability to model non-highway mobile sources in future releases.

MRS is a set of MATLAB codes that accompanies the book Microwave Radar and Radiometric Remote Sensing, edited by Ulaby and Long, published in 2013. The package includes codes for calculating many different things, including dielectric constants of water, ice, and vegetation, and also the radar and radiometric responses of vegetation and atmosphere models. The site also has on-line versions of the codes, providing plots based on user inputs.

NCAR Graphics
NCAR Graphics is a Fortran and C based software package for scientific visualization:
Contour plots, XY plots, Vector plots, Streamline plots, Triangular meshes, Weather maps, Histograms, Surfaces/Isosurfaces, Maps.

NCAR Command Language is an interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data analysis and visualization.

The Next ESA SAR Toolbox (NEST) is an ESA open source toolbox under the GNU GPL licence for reading, processing, analysing and visualising ESA (ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, SENTINEL-1) and other spaceborne (TerraSAR-X, RADARSAT 1-2, COSMO-SkyMed, JERS-1, ALOS PALSAR) SAR data processed to Level-1 or higher.

netCDF is a set of software libraries and self-describing, machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data. The conventions for climate and forecast (CF) metadata are designed to promote the processing and sharing of netCDF files. The conventions define metadata that provide a definitive description of what the data represents, and the spatial and temporal properties of the data.

OGDI is the Open Geographic Datastore Interface. OGDI is an application programming interface (API) that uses a standardized access methods to work in conjunction with GIS software packages (the application) and various geospatial data products. OGDI uses a client/server architecture to facilitate the dissemination of geospatial data products over any TCP/IP network, and a driver-oriented approach to facilitate access to several geospatial data products/formats.

OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) was built to provide a common infrastructure for computer vision applications and to accelerate the use of machine perception in the commercial products. The library has more than 2500 optimized algorithms, which includes a comprehensive set of both classic and state-of-the-art computer vision and machine learning algorithms.

OpenEV is a software library and application for viewing and analysing raster and vector geospatial data.

OpenLayers makes it easy to put a dynamic map in any web page. It can display map tiles and markers loaded from any source. OpenLayers has been developed to further the use of geographic information of all kinds. OpenLayers is completely free, Open Source JavaScript, released under the 2-clause BSD License (also known as the FreeBSD).

OpenStreetMap is a database of spatial data from around the world, including a number of libraries and programs to make use of the data.

Opticks is an expandable remote sensing and imagery analysis software platform that is free and open source. If you are interested you can learn about the history of Opticks. If you’ve used commercial tools like: ERDAS IMAGINE, RemoteView, ENVI, or SOCET GXP, then you need to give Opticks a try. Unlike other competing tools, you can add capability to Opticks by creating an extension. Opticks provides the most advanced extension capability of any other remote sensing tool on the market.

Orfeo Toolbox
The Orfeo Toolbox is a C++ library for high resolution remote sensing image processing. It is developped by CNES in the frame of the ORFEO program. It is based on the medical image processing library ITK and offers particular functionalities for remote sensing image processing in general and for high spatial resolution images in particular. Targeted algorithms for high resolution optical images (SPOT, Quickbird, Worldview, Landsat, Ikonos), hyperspectral sensors (Hyperion) or SAR (TerraSarX, ERS, Palsar) are available.

OSSIM is a powerful suite of geospatial libraries and applications used to process imagery, maps, terrain, and vector data. The software has been under active development since 1996 and is deployed across a number of private, federal and civilian agencies.

The Polarimetric SAR Data Processing and Educational Tool aims to facilitate the accessibility and exploitation of multi-polarized SAR datasets.

PostGIS adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL object-relational database. In effect, PostGIS “spatially enables” the PostgreSQL server, allowing it to be used as a backend spatial database for geographic information systems (GIS), much like ESRI’s SDE or Oracle’s Spatial extension. PostGIS follows the OpenGIS “Simple Features Specification for SQL” and has been certified as compliant with the “Types and Functions” profile.

PROJ.4 is a library for performing conversions between cartographic projections. The library is based on the work of Gerald Evenden at the USGS, but is now an OSGeo project maintained by Frank Warmerdam.

The combined PROSPECT leaf optical properties model and SAIL canopy bidirectional reflectance model, also referred to as PROSAIL, has been used for about sixteen years to study plant canopy spectral and directional reflectance in the solar domain. PROSAIL has also been used to develop new methods for retrieval of vegetation biophysical properties. It links the spectral variation of canopy reflectance, which is mainly related to leaf biochemical contents, with its directional variation, which is primarily related to canopy architecture and soil/vegetation contrast. This link is key to simultaneous estimation of canopy biophysical/structural variables for applications in agriculture, plant physiology, and ecology at different scales. PROSAIL has become one of the most popular radiative transfer tools due to its ease of use, general robustness, and consistent validation by lab/field/space experiments over the years.

QGIS is a user friendly Open Source Geographic Information System (GIS) licensed under the GNU General Public License. QGIS is an official project of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo). It runs on Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, Windows and Android and supports numerous vector, raster, and database formats and functionalities.

A python library to process, calibrate and filter RADARSAT-2 SAR data.

Random Forests
Random forests are an ensemble learning method for classification (and regression) that operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of the classes output by individual trees. The algorithm for inducing a random forest was developed by Leo Breiman and Adele Cutler, and “Random Forests” is their trademark. The term came from random decision forests that was first proposed by Tin Kam Ho of Bell Labs in 1995. The method combines Breiman’s “bagging” idea and the random selection of features, introduced independently by Ho and Amit and Geman in order to construct a collection of decision trees with controlled variance.

Radar Tools (or RAT)is a powerful open-source software tool for processing SAR remote sensing data.

R package for radiometric and topographic correction of satellite imagery. For processing of Landsat or other multispectral satellite imagery. Includes relative normalization, image-based radiometric correction, and topographic correction options.

The Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage is used to process synthetic aperture radar data and produce differential interferograms. The package is managed by researchers at JPL and Caltech in conjunction with members of the scientific community.

SAGA is the abbreviation for System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses. It is a Geographic Information System (GIS) software and has been designed for an easy and effective implementation of spatial algorithms. It offers a comprehensive, growing set of geoscientific methods as well as providing an easily approachable user interface with many visualisation options.

The Spatial Data Transfer Standard, or SDTS, is a robust way of transferring earth-referenced spatial data between dissimilar computer systems with the potential for no information loss. It is a transfer standard that embraces the philosophy of self-contained transfers, i.e. spatial data, attribute, georeferencing, data quality report, data dictionary, and other supporting metadata all included in the transfer.

The Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software (SGeMS) is an open-source computer package for solving problems involving spatially related variables. It provides geostatistics practitioners with a user-friendly interface, an interactive 3-D visualization, and a wide selection of algorithms.

Shapely is a BSD-licensed Python package for manipulation and analysis of planar geometric objects. It is based on the widely deployed GEOS (the engine of PostGIS) and JTS (from which GEOS is ported) libraries.

SpatiaLite is an open source library that extends the SQLite relational database core to support fully fledged Spatial SQL capabilities. SQLite is intrinsically simple and lightweight.

SWAP (Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant) simulates transport of water, solutes and heat in unsaturated/saturated soils. The model is designed to simulate flow and transport processes at field scale level, during growing seasons and for long term time series. It offers a wide range of possibilities to address both research and practical questions in the field of agriculture, water management and environmental protection.

Swarm is the name of an open-source agent-based modeling simulation package, useful for simulating the interaction of agents (social or biological) and their emergent collective behaviour. Swarm was initially developed at the Santa Fe Institute in the mid-1990s, and since 1999 has been maintained by the non-profit Swarm Development Group.

The goal of uDig is to provide a complete Java solution for desktop GIS data access, editing, and viewing.

The goal of VTP is to foster the creation of tools for easily constructing any part of the real world in interactive, 3D digital form. This goal will require a synergetic convergence of the fields of CAD, GIS, visual simulation, surveying and remote sensing. VTP gathers information and tracks progress in areas such as procedural scene construction, feature extraction, and realtime rendering algorithms. VTP writes and supports a set of software tools, including an interactive runtime environment (VTP Enviro). The tools and their source code are freely shared to help accelerate the adoption and development of the necessary technologies.

Wavelet Analysis of Image Registration.
A tool for the quantitative analysis of various n-dimensional (n-D) image registration techniques. The series of ‘C’ subroutines which comprise the WAIR library can be easily incorporated into the user’s site specific programs and adapted to their particular needs.

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