Crowd sourcing, is a type of participative online activity in which an individual an institution , a non profit organization, or a company proposes to a group of individuals of varying knowledge voluntary undertaking a task. Cowdsoursing typically begins with a community or or organization submitting a challenge or defining a need,then gathering information about the need or challenge, discussing it online and reviewing possible solutions.Basically, Crowd sourcing means that data collected by non-professionals usually for free is used by others. These othermay be laymen but also professional use the data. then the question arouse why would a laymen spend time and effort to collect data without financial compensation? One reason is for leisure and the good feeling of being part of community of like minded. the incentive to contribute to such initiatives appears to be ‘we outsiders can do better then officials”.On the other hand the crowd may be sourced while being unaware that someelse is using the data they collect . Using the GNSS tracking if many car-navigation system ,road managers are able to rapidly detect traffic congestion.etc. OPEN STANDARDS: Open Geospatial standards are useful in geospatial crowd sourcing software development. Since open standard results from extensive reviews of interface and encoding requirements,using such standard frees ups resources from interface development (and maintenance) so that those resources can applied to higher higher value development projects. The OGC website describes avalable standards and list many of the software product that implements OGC standard. OGC OpenGeoSMS, City GML, KML(3) and other standard are widely applicable to crowd sourcing application.
GNS (Green Navigation Services)
The idea behind GNSs is that instead of providing widely -requested routes eg. shortest or fastest,for driving, walking or biking ,routes that are green thus ‘green routes’. The objective of green routes is to provide routes that have health benefits and have least adverse impact on the environments( eg. driving routes that do not contribute adversely to air pollution) and can conserve energy (eg. driving routes that lead to least fuel consumption)
In context of Nepal, since 2011, the OSM Nepal community has been growing and a significant amount of data has been collected. This data is free for anyone to download, use, and mash-up. This site serves as a platform to grow the mapping community, organize mapping events (called mapping parties), provide technical support and resources, and communicate updates on any mapping related news and events.
from the articles of
1. Dr. Hassan karimi
2. Mathisas lemmen’s
3. Durk haarsma
4.Dr. Raj singh